Stirrup Leathers : Keep bridle reins stirrup leathers and cinch straps in the….
SAFETY IN BRIDLING, SADDLING & MOUNTING HORSES 1.
BRIDLING SAFETY A) Keep your head in the clear when bridling the horse.
He may throw his head or strike to avoid the bridle.
Avoid bridling a nervous animal in close quarters.
After buckling the throat latch always place the loose end of the strap through the keeper on the buckle. III.
SAFELY CONTROLLING AND RIDING HORSES 1.
CONTROL YOUR HORSE SAFELY A) Keep your horse under control and maintain a secure seat at all times.
Horses are easily frightened by unusual objects and noises.
Anticipate these and steady your horse.
B) When your horse is frightened and attempts to run, turn him in a circle and tighten the circle until he stops.
C) If your horse is frightened by an obstacle, steady him; give him time to overcome his fear.
Then ride by the obstacle.
Do not punish him.
D) When your horse is too full of steam, work him on a long line a few minutes before riding. 2.
SADDLING SAFETY A) In using a double rigged saddle – remember, saddle front cinch first, rear cinch last; but when unsaddling a horse, be sure to unbuckle the rear cinch first.
Failing to do so can “spook” your horse and cause a bad accident.
B) When saddling be careful to keep cinch ring from striking the off knee.
C) Adjust the saddle carefully and the cinch tight enough so it will not turn when you mount.
Lead the horse a few steps before mounting.
D) In addition to safely putting equipment on your horse it must be kept in good repair.
Keep bridle reins, stirrup leathers, and cinch straps in the best possible condition, as your safety depends on these straps.
Replace any strap when it begins to show signs of wear. 2.
RIDING YOUR HORSE SAFELY A) Ride with your weight at the balls of your feet so you can free your feet from the stirrups if your horse should happen to fall.
B) Hold your mount to a walk when going up or down hill.
C) When riding in groups, keep a horse-length between animals, and be alert for overhead tree branches.
D) Reduce speed when riding rough ground or in sand mud, ice, or snow, where there is danger of the mount falling or slipping.
E) Avoid paved roads or streets.
Slow your mount to a walk when crossing such roads.
If he is a spirited young horse, dismount and lead him across.
F) Don’t forget you are doing the driving.
Keep away from obstacles where you or the horse may get hurt.
G) Travel single file and on the right side of the road.
H) On long rides, dismount and lead for five minutes each hour.
I) Walk the horse to and from the stable.
This keeps him from running home and refusing to leave the stable. 3.
MOUNTING SAFETY A) Stand with your feet well back in the clear and reach forward when saddling the mount.
B) Swing the saddle into position easily-not suddenly.
Dropping the saddle down quickly or hard may scare the horse.
C) Soon after starting the ride, dismount and again tighten the saddle girth.
Horses often swell up when first saddled, and failure to tighten girths later can result in serious accidents.
D) Never mount the horse in a small barn, near fences, trees, or over-hanging projections.
Side-stepping mounts have injured riders who failed to take these precautions. December 1989 SAFETY RULES AND PRECAUTIONS Page 51 IV.
SHOWING THE HORSE WITH SAFETY AND COURTESY A) Don’t try to show a green horse.
Teach the horse at home, and not in the show ring.
B) Avoid letting the horse kick when close to other horses.
Space horses when possible.
C) Keep calm, confident and collected.
Remember that the nervous showman creates an unfavorable impression.
D) Carefully and courteously follow the instructions of the judge and the ringmaster.
E) Be cautious and respect the rights of other exhibitors.
F) Be a good sport: win without bragging and lose without complaining. — December 1989 GLOSSARY Action: How a horse moves its feet and legs as at walk, trot, etc.
Aids: The legs, hands, weight, and voice, as used in controlling a horse.
Alter: To castrate a horse, to geld.
Amble: A slow, easy pace.
The front and rear feet on a side move in unison.
Appaloosa: A breed of horses characterized by leopard-spot markings.
Developed by the Nez Perce Indians.
Appointments: That equipment and clothing used in showing.
Astringent: Drugs that cause contraction of infected areas, such as tannic acid, alum, and zinc oxide or sulphate.
Back: To step a horse backward.
Bandy Legs: a horse pigeon-toed on his hind feet with the points of his hocks turned outward.
Banged tail: Hair of tail cut below the dock or bony part of the tail.
Barren mare: a mare that is not in foal.
Bearing rein: Neck rein – rein pushed against neck in direction of turn.
Bight of the reins: The part of the reins passing between thumb and fingers and out the top of the hand.
Bitting rig: a combination of bridle, harness pad and crupper.
Used to teach horse to flex at the poll.
Black points: Mane, tail, and legs black or darker than rest of horse.
Blemish: Any mark or deformity that diminishes the beauty but does not affect usefulness.
Bloom: Usually refers to hair that is clean and glossy, denoting a healthy appearance.
Bosal: That part of hackamore that fits over the nose.
Brand: A mark of identification.
A private registered mark burned (in cheek, shoulder, or hip.
A number burned on upper neck as in army horses.
Temporary brands are made by burning a number on the hoof, or painting a mark on the skin with silver nitrate.
Brands are now tattooed on inside of upper lip to avoid disfiguring body.
Broom tail: A western range horse; a poor, ill-kept horse of uncertain breed.
Buck kneed: knees bent forward.
Bugeyed: Eye protruding; horse usually cannot see well Calf kneed: opposite of buck-kneed.
Knees bent backward.
Canter: The Canterbury gallop.
A three-beat gait, a moderate, easy, collected gallop.
Cantle: The back of a saddle.
Cannon: The lower leg bone below knee and below hock.
Castration: Removal of testicles from a male.
A castrated male horse is a gelding.
Cavesson: A noseband on a bridle.
A stiff noseband on a halter used with longer strap in training.
Cavy: A collection of horses.
Cayuse: A general term used to describe a horse of nondescript breeding.
Center fire: A western saddle with cinch hung from center.
Chaps; chaparajos: Seatless overalls made of leather, sometimes fur covered, for protection when riding in brush or for protection from cold.
Also spelled chaparreras, chapareros.
Chestnuts: The horny growths on inside of horse’s leg; also called night eyes.
Cinch; cincha: A wide cord girth used on western saddles.
Chukker: A seven-and-one-half-minute period in a polo game. (From Hindu meaning a circle”).
Coarse: Lacking refinement, rough, harsh appearance.
Cob: A stylish, high-actioned horse used for driving and riding.
Cold-blooded: A horse with ancestry from the draft breeds.
Collected: Controlled gait; a correct coordinated action.
Colt: A male foal.combination horse: One used for saddle and driving.
Conformation: Structure, form, and symmetrical arrangement of parts as applied to a horse.
Congenital: An abnormal condition that an animal possesses at birth, such as hernia. GLOSSARY Page 53 Coon Footed: Long, sloping pasterns throwing fetlocks low.
Corona: Saddle pad cut to fit shape of saddle; has a large colorful roll around edge.
Coupling: Region of the lumbar vertebrae, loin, or space between last rib and hip.
Cow-hocked: Hocks close together, feet wide apart.
Crest: Upper, curved part of neck, peculiar to stallions.
Cribbing: Biting or setting teeth against manger or some other object while sucking air.
Criollo: A breed of South American horses; a small, sturdy horse used as a cow pony.
Cross: A dark stripe across the shoulders.
Cross reins: Method of holding single reins where reins overlap in hands across horse’s neck.
Croup: Part of the back just in front of base of tail.
Crow hops: Mild bucking motions.
Dam: The female parent of a horse.
Defect: Any mark or blemish that impairs usefulness: unsoundness.
Docked: Bones of the tail cut in shortening the tail.
Dressage: Advanced exercises and training in horsemanship.
Dropped sole: Downward rotation of toe of coffin bone inside hoof due to chronic founder or laminitis.
Entire: A stallion.
Equine: of or pertaining to a horse.
Equitation: art of riding horseback, horsemanship.
Ergot: A horny growth behind fetlock joint.
Ewe-necked: Top profile of neck concave like a female sheep’s neck.
Farrier: A horse shoer.
Far side: The right side of a horse.
Favor: To favor: to limp slightly.
Fenders: The wide pieces of leather along the stirrup leathers.
Feral: A wild horse.
Has escaped from domestication and become wild, as contrasted to one originating in the wild. Fiadore: A special knot on hackamore, exerts pressure at rear of jaws.
Filly: A female foal up to 3 years.
Five-gaited: a saddle horse trained to perform in five gaits namely the walk, trot, canter, slow gait, and rack.
Flame: A few white hairs in center of forehead.
Flat-foot: When the angle of the foot is noticeably less than 45 degrees.
Flat race: A race without jumps.
Floating: Filing of rough, irregular teeth to give a smoother grinding surface.
Foal: Colt or filly under one year old.
Forefooting: Roping an animal by the forefeet.
Forehand: The fore part of a horse; the forelegs, head, and shoulders.
Founder: Inflammation of the feet causing lameness.
Fox trot: A short-step gait, as when passing from walk to trot.
Gaits: The manner of going.
The straight gaits are walk, trot, canter, and gallop.
Five-gaited horses walk, trot, canter, rack and do one of the slow gaits: Running walk, fox trot, or stepping pace.
Gallop: A three-beat gait resembling the canter but faster, 12 miles per hour.
The extended gallop may be a four-beat gait and is about 16 miles per hour.
Gaskin: The muscular part of the hind leg above the hock.
Geld: To geld: to cut or castrate a horse.
Gelding: An altered or castrated horse.
Gestation period: The length of time for the development of the foal from time of breeding, usually about 11 months.
Get: The progeny of a stallion.
Girth: The measure of the circumference of a horse’s body back of the withers.
A leather, canvas, or corded piece around body of horse to hold saddle on.
Glass eye: Blue or whitish eye.
Goose-rumped: Having narrow, drooping rump.
Go short: To take short steps, indicative of lameness. December 1989 GLOSSARY Page 54 Green horse: One with little training.
Groom: To groom a horse is to clean and brush him.
Groom also refers to person who does this.
Gymkhana: A program of games on horseback.
Hack: A horse ridden to a hunt meet.
A pleasure riding horse.
Hackamore: A bitless bridle of various designs used in breaking and training. (From Spanish word Jaquima).
Hand: A measure of the height of horses: a hand’s breadth equals 4 inches.
Haw: A third eyelid or membrane in front of eye which removes foreign bodies from the eye.
Head shy: Applied to a horse that is sensitive about the head: jerks away when touched.
Head stall: The leather bridle straps exclusive of bit and reins.
Herd bound: A horse who refuses to leave a group of other horses.
High school: Advanced training and exercise of the horse.
Hobble: Straps fastened to the front legs of a horse to prevent him from straying from camp.
Hogged: Short-cut mane.
Hoof: The foot as a whole in horses.
The curved covering of horn over the foot.
Honda: A ring of rope, rawhide, or metal on a lasso through which the loop slides.
Horse: General term for an animal of the horse kind.
Horse length: Eight feet; distance between horses in a column.
Horsemanship: Art of riding the horse and of understanding his needs.
Jack: A male donkey or ass.
Jaquima: Spanish bridle: a hackamore.
Jockey: The leather flaps on the side of a saddle.
Laminae: The horny-grooved inside of the hoof.
Lariat: From Spanish, la reata, meaning “the rope”.
A rope, often of rawhide, with running noose, used for catching cattle.
Lead: The first stride in the canter. Lead strap: A strap or rope attached to the halter for leading.
Light horse: Any horse used primarily for riding or driving: all breeds except draft breeds.
Longe: A strap, rein, or rope about 30 feet long, attached to halter or cavesson, used in breaking and training.
Mare: A mature female horse.
Martingale: A strap running from the girth between front legs to the bridle.
The standing martingale is attached to the bit.
The running martingale has rings through which the reins pass.
Maverick: An unbranded stray.
Mecate: a hackamore lead rope.
Mellow hide: Soft, pliable, and easy to handle.
Mule: A cross between a jack and a mare.
Near side: The left side of a horse.
Neat’s-foot: An oil made from suet, feet, and bones of cattle, used for softening leather.
Off side: The right side.
Open behind: Hocks far apart, feet close together.
Orloff: A breed of Russian trotting horses.
Outfit: The equipment of rancher or horseman.
Outlaw: A horse that cannot be broken.
Palatable: Agreeable and pleasing to the taste.
Passenger: One who rides a horse without control, letting the horse go as he wishes.
Pathological: A diseased condition.
Paunchy: Too much belly.
Pony: A horse under 14.2 hands.
Pointing: Standing with front leg extended more than normal – a sign of lameness.
Poll: The top of a horse’s head just back of the ears.
Polochain: A chin chain of flat, large links.
Port: The part of the mouthpiece of a bit curving up over the tongue.
Posting: The rising and descending of a rider with the rhythm of the trot.
Pounding: Striking the ground hard in the stride. December 1989 GLOSSARY
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